Are the nodules found to be cancer?Nodule size and shape are key. How often should you check?

2022-05-09 0 By

Conclusion: Low dose CT (LDCT) is one of the most effective tools to detect early signs of lung cancer.However, the high cost of the test, coupled with a certain dose of radiation, many people are often hesitant about the test.However, at present, the medical community recommends the elderly to do this examination regularly, so as to discover problems as early as possible.So, who recommends doing LDCT?How often do you do it?How to find nodules?According to the current statistics, trachea, bronchial tumor and lung cancer are the most deadly cancers in China, with more than 630,000 people dying of lung cancer every year.According to the previous survey data, the high risk population of lung cancer is a long-term smoking habit, family history, or easy inhalation of cooking oil smoke housewives, engaged in metal, asbestos and other high-risk occupations, recommended regular screening for lung cancer.However, in recent years, the number of non-smokers getting lung cancer in East Asian countries, including China, has been increasing year by year.In China, more than 80% of female lung cancer patients do not even smoke, and the specific reason is unknown. It seems that in addition to genes and air pollution, it may also be related to age.Therefore, it is recommended that low-dose computed tomography should be added to the regular physical examination of women after the age of 50, regardless of whether they have moderate risk factors of smoking and long-term exposure to lampblack.Women should be more aware of the risk of lung cancer!What’s the difference between an X-ray and a low-dose CT?Why women with good living habits may also suffer from lung cancer?According to a study published in the international journal Cell, mutations in the APOBEC gene are associated with a higher risk of lung cancer.The cause of the mutation remains to be determined, but it is known that APOBEC mutations are more common in women than in men.In the study, more than 70 percent of non-smoking women under 60 who developed lung cancer had the mutation.Since lung cancer is difficult to prevent, how to find out as early as possible screening signs?Existing screening tools for lung cancer include chest X-ray and low-dose computed tomography (LDCT).Chest X-ray check price is relatively cheap, but the problem is that the sensitivity is relatively low, can only find the size of the tumor or nodules, tend to have a few centimeters, and if the bones and heart covered may not, according to which such as X-ray found tumor, often has been in a state of cancer later period, missed the best treatment opportunity.In contrast, the advantage of LDCT examination lies in its high sensitivity.At present, the industry’s highest specification of examination equipment, has been able to find only 0.1 cm of nodules, and the picture is clear, no dead Angle, but also can see whether the patient has cardiovascular sclerosis, upper abdominal tumor and other conditions.As an analogy, a chest X-ray looks like a photograph with only a tree in it.But in the LDCT image, even a few leaves, a few branches and a few birds on a tree can be seen clearly.LDCT examination costs, radiation are higher than X-ray, do too many examinations will increase the risk of cancer?At present, THE cost of LDCT examination is relatively high, and the cost of an examination in the provincial grade A hospital is basically about 400 yuan, and in addition to the cost, the radiation amount of an LDCT examination is about 1-1.5 MSV, which is more than 50 times that of the traditional chest X-ray examination.High levels of radiation are also a concern for many people.So, do more LDCT examination, will increase the risk of cancer?In view of this problem, the standard adult in China receives uniform radiation of the whole body no more than 50 MSV per year, the average is about 4 MSV per month, the average is about 1 MSV per week, that is to say, the subject will not exceed the standard of low-dose CT once a week.In addition, according to existing studies, no matter for single or multiple LDCT examinations, the cumulative radiation dose of more than 1000 MSV will significantly increase the risk of cancer.Therefore, if no abnormality is found after the first LDCT examination, it is recommended to do another LDCT examination in about 2-3 years.The longest time between two examinations should not exceed 5 years.Because, even in healthy people, cancer cells can grow from nothing in three to five years.But people with early-stage cancer are more likely to have rapid growth within a year or two.Tests show nodules. Is it cancer?The size and shape of the nodules is critical and because of the highly sensitive nature of the LDCT, many people will find several nodules in their lungs when they are examined.Even if the nodules are small, they can cause a person to worry: Do I have cancer?.In fact, nodules can be roughly divided into parenchyma and ground glass.The former has a higher density and is a solid lesion, while the latter shows fog-gray characteristics and a lower density on the image.If the size of parenchymal nodules is less than 0.6 cm, there is more than 90% chance of benign granuloma, do not worry too much.However, if the lesion is 0.6-0.8cm or larger, continuously growing and showing ground-glass nodules, the possibility of early lung adenocarcinoma should not be taken lightly.Nodules are suspected to be malignant, and there are several follow-up methods.For example, nodules larger than 0.8 cm may be considered for close follow-up after 3 months to observe changes, or other tests such as CT imaging, biopsies or surgery may be ordered to confirm the presence of cancer cells.Nodules less than 0.8 cm can be followed up first and rechecked 6 months later.Lung inflammation may also cause ground-glass shadows on LDCT images, which usually recover and disappear after a period of time.However, if ground-glass nodules do not disappear or even become larger during follow-up review, it is necessary to further slice and operate to remove tissue test.How to prevent lung cancer?Wear a mask, eat a healthy diet, and get regular screenings. What else can you do to prevent lung cancer besides not smoking?Air pollution is one of the most important risk factors for lung cancer.High levels of PM2.5, cooking fumes, and smoke from burning all expose the lungs to carcinogens.Therefore, whether there is an epidemic or not, it is recommended that people wear masks in bad weather to reduce the inhalation of carcinogens.In addition, existing studies have pointed out that preservatives, food additives and aflatoxin in the diet can increase the risk of cancer.Intake of fresh non-processed food, balanced nutrition, is still the best way to prevent cancer.Although lung cancer in young women who do not smoke can be caused by a genetic mutation.But current genetic tests on the market do not detect mutations associated with lung cancer, such as APOBEC.Regular LDCT examination is still the best way to find early lung cancer.When lung cancer is caught early or late, five-year survival rates vary widely.For non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most common form of lung cancer, the 5-year survival rate for stage 1 lung cancer was 84.3%. The 5-year survival rate for stage 2 lung cancer dropped significantly to 43.8%, and for stage 3 and 4 lung cancer to only 6.9%.Early detection, can get the best treatment effect!# one in a million