Let the great ruins become a civilized classroom shared by the society

2022-04-28 0 By

A bird ‘s-eye view of the Ming Tang Paradise and yingtianmen ruins of Luoyang City in Sui and Tang Dynasties.File photo no. 1 pit of qin Terracotta Warriors.File photo xiyanglou ruins of the Old Summer Palace.File photo liangzhu Museum.The “big” of a great site is not just about its size.With 150 sites selected as the backbone, we can see the development of Chinese civilization together. The sites will become more direct witness of our long civilization outside the museum. Nihewan, Zhoukoudian, Niuheliang, Yangshao Village, Liangzhu, Shimao, Erlitou, Yin Ruins, Sanxingdui, Zhouyuan…The great ruins on display everywhere on the vast land tell the story of China’s long history.It only takes more than 20 years for a large site to form a basic pattern from the concept to the point by point, and from the emphasis on scientific protection to the advocacy of utilization and display.They are important resources for the creative transformation and development of fine traditional Chinese culture. We need to think about where we come from and where we are going.”We will do a good job in the research and interpretation of unearthed cultural relics and sites, so as to present more clearly and comprehensively the origin and development of Chinese civilization and its major contribution to mankind, and better play the role of educating people through history.”In the “14th Five-year Plan for The Protection and Utilization of Great Sites” (hereinafter referred to as the Plan), great sites are expected to transform from parks integrating culture and tourism into civilized classes shared by the society and civilized scenes where the masses can participate.How does all this work?Our reporter invited relevant experts to express their opinions.Reporter: It is mentioned in the plan that the protection and utilization of large sites is a mode of cultural relics protection and utilization with Chinese characteristics and in accordance with China’s national conditions. It is a major innovation in the protection and utilization of China’s cultural heritage.What are the features and innovations reflected in?An Lei: Great ruins are a unique concept in China.Internationally, the management of important archaeological sites as national parks began very early, and many excellent cases and experiences have been formed for reference.The Old Summer Palace, one of China’s earliest ruins, was opened to the public in the 1980s.Then, hanyang Mausoleum site park, Qin Shihuang mausoleum site park and a number of large sites have emerged.During the 11th Five-Year Plan period, the state launched protection projects for 100 major sites, issued a series of specialized laws and regulations, and initially established a protection and management system.Since then, both Yin Ruins and Yuan Shang have been successfully inscribed on the World Heritage List.In the 12th Five-Year Plan, the great sites were defined as “the most representative comprehensive physical evidence of the development history of Chinese civilization and precious cultural heritage”, and a new pattern of “six areas (Xi ‘an, Luoyang, Jingzhou, Qufu, Zhengzhou and Chengdu) in four lines and one circle” was established with 150 great sites as the focus.The current 150 large sites, basically continue this pattern.Sun Qingwei: Of course, the “big” of a large site does not just mean big area.A large site is a collection of civilizations in a specific historical stage. Compared with ordinary sites, the depth and historical thickness of civilization are different, and the research difficulty is also different, requiring long-term archaeological work.With 150 major sites selected as the backbone, we can see the development of Chinese civilization.We used to look at artifacts in museums, and many of the large sites are the original sites of these artifacts.A large site can be viewed as a larger “thing” that provides the environment, space and relationships in which civilization takes place and allows people to better understand our civilization.Wang Lu: Most foreign sites are stone ruins.China’s great sites, many of them buried underground, are fragile and non-renewable, closely associated with contemporary urban and rural life.These sites have complex and far-reaching spatial connotations, and their historical significance is particularly important, but their “readability” is limited. Therefore, it is necessary to reproduce the meanings through the intervention of the protectors on the premise of guaranteeing the authenticity of the ontology.At the same time, the conflict between the ruins and local urban and rural construction should be resolved. This protection mode is a unique exploration and innovation in China.Reporter: The evolution of the concept, we can see the change of conservation concept.From “immovable cultural relics” to “cultural relic protection units”, and from large sites to archaeological parks, the connotation is increasingly rich.Major sites have been used for archaeology, scientific research, education, recreation and other functions, and belong to scientific and open cultural landscapes.The protection and display of the great relics play a demonstrative, comprehensive and leading role in the protection of cultural relics in China.As you can imagine, this was not an easy road to explore.An Lei: In the last 10 years, the concept of cultural relic protection and utilization has undergone a great change.In 2018, several Opinions on Strengthening the Reform of The Protection and Utilization of Cultural Relics was released, which was a turning point.The Guidelines for the Utilization of Large Sites (Trial), issued in 2020, clearly put forward two types of “value utilization” and “compatible use”, completing the transformation from “preservation of objects” to “value inheritance”.This shift is particularly evident at large sites.At the beginning of the planning of large sites, the acceleration of urbanization has brought unprecedented impact and challenges to cultural heritage protection, and the contradiction between large site protection and land resources is very prominent.Gradually, the great site has changed from a neglected corner to a beautiful place in the city, from being known only to professional archaeologists, to being noticed by local people after the park was built, and even gaining national popularity. All these changes can be seen.Different subjects treat the same object with different values.The significance of great sites to archaeologists is necessarily different from that of government departments, urban planners, local villagers and visitors.The protection and display of large sites directly reflects the multiple values of cultural heritage.A site, show better refine the spirit of the Chinese excellent traditional culture identity reporter: also mentioned in the planning, great site protection in China using the deep-seated problems still exist, such as space use control measures is not yet perfect, protection and display utilization mode is relatively single, large sites “alive” way is not much, not enough energy.What factors restrict the further “living” of large sites?How to overcome these limitations?An Lei: At present, the main model of exhibition and utilization of large sites is the Ancient site park.Relying on the park, there are archaeology, research, tourism, leisure and other functions.At present, the level of these parks is uneven, such as Daming Palace, Yin Ruins, Jinsha, Liangzhu, Old Summer Palace and other sites with national influence are not enough, the park and site museum construction homogenization is obvious.Sun Qingwei: The single model shows that the understanding of large sites is not deep enough.Large sites, large scale, rich in connotation, archaeology and research power are chronically inadequate.Even for such a large and well-preserved site as Yin Ruins, our understanding of it is still far from enough after more than 90 years.We should make clear the unique position of each site in the long history and its unique value and connotation in the identification system of Chinese civilization. In terms of research, display and utilization, we should make “one site, one policy” according to its unique historical status.In particular, the large capital ruins such as Yin Ruins and Erlitou ruins need national unified planning.Wang Lu: To avoid the homogenization of large sites, it is necessary to mobilize the participation of all sectors of society and activate the wisdom of all.For example, archaeological parks located in urban or suburban areas can be combined with festivals, marketing and cultural promotion activities to strive to become cultural centers of the community.For example, strawberry Music Festival in daming Palace site, “spring Outing Festival” in Yuanmingyuan site and “Hongshan Grape Festival” in Hongshan site are all relatively successful examples.The archaeological park may be only a part or a phase of the site, but special industries can also be developed around the large site, such as kiln sites for ceramics, jade cultural industrial park in Liangzhu site, and some sites suitable for ecological agriculture.Classroom Reporter: In addition to updating ideas and innovating systems and mechanisms, science and technology also play an important role in the conservation and utilization of large sites.AnLei: yes, referred to in the digital interconnection project such as planning, we hope that from archaeological wisdom to the wisdom park, docking wisdom city and the country, even to a set of data with the original data to the end, the formation of park run full digital interconnected chain, and further derived numerical results, it is systematic archaeological, research, protection and sustainable utilization of technical support.At present, there are many ruins parks in the same attempt, such as Liangzhu, Zhoukoudian, Jinsha, Qin Shi Huang mausoleum, Anji, and so on.It is hoped that these cases will eventually drive the whole industry and push forward the integration process of industry-university-research-application through the force of science and technology.Monitoring and site monitoring, similar to the world heritage, national archaeological site park has achieved an annual monitoring normalized, reached through the park to run all kinds of basic data accumulation analysis to guide the development of the industry goal, we also hope to be able to accumulate further upgraded to formal monitoring platform even big park site monitoring platform.Wang Lu: 5G, artificial intelligence, VR (virtual reality) and other technologies have been widely used in many large sites.The digital Old Summer Palace, for example, has become a brand for innovative displays of great relics.Much of the digital display, however, is confined to the park’s pavilions or heritage museums.Some sites are creating immersive experiences on site, such as the Han Chang ‘an Ruins.In the future, when people walk in the ruins, they can know where they are at any time through their mobile phones. When they wear VR glasses at a specific position, they can travel through time and space and see the ancient Han Chang ‘an City rising from the ground.Reporter: In your mind, what other great sites might look like in the future?Wang Lu: I hope the grand ruins will no longer be just a project or a park, but integrated into the life of the whole city, especially in cities like Xi ‘an, Luoyang and Beijing, where the ancient and modern overlap.For example, in Xi ‘an, there may be a TWO-DIMENSIONAL code in every community. By scanning the code, people can know which lane they live in, what they did here in the past, and what stories have happened.Signs may appear next to seemingly ordinary roads, squares or green Spaces, reminding people that they are walking on the old axis of the city, Rosefinch Street.The city gate, the city wall ruins park, etc. are combined to show the pattern of the outer city.The way of imperial examination, Xuanzang’s road, Chang ‘an suburban festival, Qujiang Spring Festival…Line by line or area by area, telling the old story.The invisible city of Chang ‘an emerges from the modern city of Xi ‘an.Sun Qingwei: In the future, every major site will become an irreplaceable civilization classroom.Large sites not only have site museums, archaeological sites, but also irreplaceable authentic environment.I have been to Liangzhu many times. Every time I stood on the platform of Mojiao Mountain to blow on the wind, I could not help thinking of the ancient times.There are qianling, I believe that everyone from the top of the Qianling overlooking, can feel the grand momentum of the tang dynasty.I was told that the moment I saw the mausoleum of The First Emperor of Qin, I realized the inevitability of the unification of qin.This is the unique charm of the great ruins.The great site will become a more direct witness to the centuries-old civilization outside the museum.Archaeologists are changing from providers of materials to interpreters and narrators of history.In the past, we could only give a brief description of an unearthed artifact, such as its length, width, height, weight and pattern. Later, we got to know its craft, producer, etiquette system behind it, related inheritance, communication and transmission path…With advances in technology, we can also take a broader view, revealing the cultural confidence behind great sites and how they have changed history and influenced the future.Speaker: Sun Qingwei (Professor of The School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking University) An Lei (Director of the Department of Grand Sites and Planning, Chinese Academy of Cultural Heritage) Wang Lu (Associate Professor of Xi ‘an University of Architecture and Technology) Zhou Feiya Yang Xuemei (Reporter for Our newspaper)